Глоссарий маркетинга — «В»

ВАРИАЦИЯ ТОВАРА
модификация товара, который уже производится и находится на рынке, путем изменения его отдельных свойств или показателей качества. Могут быть изменены физические (материал, качество), эстетические (дизайн, цвет, форма), символические (название марки товара) свойства товара и связанные с такой деятельностью подразделения фирмы (служба покупателей, служба сервиса и т.д.). Важнейшими стратегиями модификации могут быть стратегии улучшения качества товара, повышения полезности товара, улучшения формы и стиля товара.

ВЕРТИКАЛЬНАЯ МАРКЕТИНГОВАЯ СИСТЕМА
совокупность производителя, одного или нескольких оптовых торговцев и одного или нескольких розничных торговцев, действующих как единая система, в которой один из членов канала либо является владельцем остальных, либо предоставляет им торговые привилегии, либо обладает мощью, обеспечивающей их полное сотрудничество.

ВИДОВАЯ КОНКУРЕНЦИЯ
соперничество между разновидностями товара, которые, как правило, удовлетворяют одну и ту же потребность и различаются между собой лишь техническими параметрами (например, автомобили, велосипеды, мотоциклы).

ВНЕДРЕНИЕ В РЫНОК
единица измерения эффективности маркетинга, выраженная количеством клиентов или прибыли, которую вы получаете в отдельно взятой рыночной доле, поделенная на общее число компаний или возможное количество прибыли на этом рынке.

ВНЕШНЕТОРГОВАЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ
международный обмен товарами в вещественно-материальной форме и услугами, связанными с осуществлением товарооборота.

ВНЕШНЕЭКОНОМИЧЕСКАЯ КОММЕРЧЕСКАЯ ОПЕРАЦИЯ
это комплекс действий по подготовке, заключению и выполнению актов международной торговли, научно-производственной, или инновационной сделки.

ВНЕШНЯЯ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННАЯ СРЕДА
элементы внешней маркетинговой среды, представленные национальными неконтролируемыми факторами (динамика развития национальной экономики, политическая стабильность, состояние конкуренции и др.).

ВНЕШНЯЯ СРЕДА
покупатели с их демографическими характеристиками, конкуренты, посредники, финансовые учреждения,  рекламные агентства и фирмы, изучающие общественное мнение, таможенные и иные правительственные органы.

ВНЕШНЯЯ ТОРГОВЛЯ
это торговля между контрагентами в разных государствах, состоящая из вывоза (экспорта) и ввоза (импорта) товаров.

ВНУТРЕННЯЯ СРЕДА
функциональные структуры фирмы, обеспечивающие управление, разработку и тестирование новых товаров, серийное производство, продвижение товара  до покупателя, сбыт, обслуживание и обеспечение запасными частями,  обучение персонала, взаимоотношения с поставщиками сырья и материалов и т.д., а также с финансовыми и иными внешними органами.

ВНУТРЕННЯЯ СРЕДА ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯ
элементы внутренней маркетинговой среды, представленные контролируемыми факторами (товар, цена,стимулирование сбыта,  каналы распределения  и др).

ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ ДИВЕРСИФИКАЦИОННОГО РОСТА
возможности роста, открывающиеся за пределами отрасли деятельности фирмы.

ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ ИНТЕГРАЦИОННОГО РОСТА
возможности роста за счет интеграции с элементами маркетинговой системы отрасли.

ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ ИНТЕНСИВНОГО РОСТА
возможности роста в рамках нынешнего масштаба деятельности фирмы.

ВСТРЕЧНАЯ ТОРГОВЛЯ
торговые операции, в рамках которых, предусматриваются встречные обязательства экспортеров закупить у импортеров товары на часть или полную стоимость экспортируемых товаров.

ВТОРИЧНОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ
использование уже имеющихся данных, ранее полученных для других целей.

ВТОРИЧНЫЕ ДАННЫЕ
информация, которая уже где-то существует, будучи собранной ранее для других целей.

ВЫБОР ПОСТАВЩИКА
анализ и выбор предложений, наиболее предпочтительных с точки зрения качества, цены, срока и условий поставки.

ВЫБОР ЦЕЛЕВЫХ СЕГМЕНТОВ РЫНКА
оценка и отбор одного или нескольких сегментов рынка для выхода на них со своими товарами.

ВЫБОРОЧНЫЙ СБЫТ (селективный) 
метод реализации товаров, предусматривающий ограничение количества посредников в зависимости от возможностей организации сервиса продукции. Чаще всего он применяется для дорогих престижных товаров.

ВЫСТАВКА
это показ, каково бы ни было его наименование, основная цель которого состоит в просвещении публики путем демонстрации средств, имеющихся в распоряжении человечества для удовлетворения потребностей.

 

 

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